Information on this page is taken from Designing Data-Intensive Applications by Martin Kleppmann.

Data Models

Data models are important because they effect not only how the software is written, but also how we think about the problem we are solving. Most applications are built by layering one data model on top of another (e.g. API -> database -> disk -> bytes). Each layer hides the complexity of the layers below it by providing a clean data model.

Different kinds of data models embody assumptions about how they are going to be used: some kinds of usage are easy and some are not supported, some operations are fast and some perform badly.

Relational Model

The best-known data model today is probably that of SQL, based on the relational model. Data is organized into relations (called tables in SQL), where each relation is a series of tuples (rows in SQL).

The relational model provides good support for joins, and one-to-many and many-to-many relationships. This model encourages normalization. In relational databases, it's normal to refer to rows in other tables by ID, because joins are easy. IDs remove duplication and never need to change, even if the information it identifies changes.

A common criticism of the SQL data model is that a translation layer must exist between the objects in the application code and the database model of tables, rows, and columns. Object-relational mapping (ORM) frameworks reduce the amount of boilerplate code required, but they can't completely hide the differences between these two models.

SQL is a declarative query language (not imperative). In a declarative query language, you just specify the pattern of the data you want - what conditions the result must meet, and how you want the data to be transformed (e.g. sorted, grouped, and aggregated) - but not how to achieve that goal. It is up to the database system's query optimizer to decide which indexes and which join methods to use, and in which order to execute various parts of the query.

Document Model

Non-relational databases store a collection of documents which usually contain key/value pairs (JSON). Sometimes called NoSQL, these databases provide a more dynamic and expressive data model than relational schemas. Additional, these database sometimes offer greater scalability than relational databases.

The JSON representation has better locality than a multi-table schema; all relevant information is in one space and can be retrieved with a single query. The tree structure of JSON implicitly represents one-to-many relationships.

If your application uses many-to-many relationships, the document model becomes less appealing. It's possible to reduce the need for joins by denormalizing, but then the application code needs to do additional work to keep the data consistent. Joins can be emulated in application code by making multiple requests to the database, but that also moves complexity into the application and is usually slower than a join performed by specialized code inside the database.

Document databases are sometimes called schemaless, but that's misleading, as the code that reads the data usually assumes some kind of structure - i.e. there is an implicit schema, but it is not enforced by the database. A more accurate term is schema-on-read in contrast to schema-on-write (the traditional approach of relational databases).

Graph Model

When many-to-many relationships are very common in your data it becomes natural to start modeling your data as a graph. Note that graph databases don't limit vertices to homogeneous data: different types of object can be stored in a single datastore.

There are many ways to structure and query data in graphs. Example query languages include Cypher, SPARQL, and Datalog.