Bags, Stacks, and Queues
A bag is a collection that stores items in an unordered fashion without support for removal. The data structure is usually used to collect items and then iterate through them.
A bag can be implemented in a similar fashion to a stack (see below). The pop operation needs to be removed and push needs to be changed to add.
A (pushdown) stack is a collection based on the last-in-first-out (LIFO) policy. Plates stacked in the kitchen. The final plate added to the stack is the first one to be removed.
A stack can be implemented with an array. A class maintains the array and the size of the stack (which begins at zero). Pushing an element increases the size and adds the element to array[size]. Popping an element returns the element at array[size] and then reduces size by one. Resizing is required if one doesn't know the maximum number of elements that can be added.
A linked list can also be used. This method of course requires references. We only need to maintain the head of the linked list for a stack implementation. A push appends to the front, a pop remove the first element.
A queue is a collection based on the first-in-first-out (FIFO) policy. A real world example is the line for checkout at a store. The next person added to the line has to wait until all of the people in front of him/her have left the line.
Just like a stack, a queue can be implemented with an array. This time, the class needs to maintain a head and a tail index.
Again, a linked list can also be used. The algorithm maintains a reference to the first and last elements in the linked list. Dequeuing means removing and returning the first element and updating the head reference. Enqueuing means changing the next node in the last element and then updating the reference to last.