Amazon Identity Access Management (IAM)
IAM (Identity Access Management) allows management of users and their level of access to the AWS Console. IAM gives
- Centralized control of your AWS account.
- Shared access to your AWS account.
- Granular permissions.
- Identity federation.
- Multi-factor authentication (MFA).
- Temporary access for users/devices and services where necessary.
- Password rotation policies.
- Support PCI DSS Compliance (payment cards)
IAM is global. This service does not allow region selection.
- Users: End users (think people).
- Groups: A collection of users under a set of permissions.
- Roles: A set of permissions assigned to AWS resources.
- Policies: A document that defines one (or more) permissions. Can be attached to users, groups, and roles. These documents remain universal. Policies are defined with JSON.
The root account is the account initially used to sign up for AWS. It has complete admin access.
Programmatic vs. Console Access
Users can have programmatic and console access. Programmatic access gives an access key ID and a secret access key. Console access happens through a username and password. The access key ID and the secret access key cannot be used to login through the console. Likewise you cannot use your username and password to programmatically interact with AWS.
Access Key IDs and Secret Access Keys may only be viewed once. If you lose them, you have to regenerate them. Download and save them in a secure location.
Roles are a way to grant permissions to entities that you trust. These entities may be
- An IAM user in another account.
- Application code running on an EC2 instance that needs to perform actions on AWS resources.
- An AWS service that needs to act on resources in your account to provide its features.
- Users from a corporate directory who use identity federation with SAML.
Roles are preferred for EC2 instances from a security perspective. Roles allow one to avoid the use of Access Key IDs and Secret Access Keys. Roles can easily be attached and detached from running EC2 instances without having to stop or terminate these instances.
When creating a role, you choose a set of policies. Changes to a role's policies immediately take affect. Of course, roles are universal - you can use them in any region.
IAM provides three types of policies:
- Managed Policies: Policies created and administered by AWS. These AWS-provided policies can be attached to multiple users, groups, or roles. You cannot change the permissions.
- Customer Managed Policy: Stand-alone policy created by you. You can attach this policy to multiple users, group, and roles - but only within your own account.
- Inline Policy: Policy embedded within the user, group, or role to which it applies. There is a strict 1:1 relationship between the entity and the policy.
In most cases, AWS recommends using Managed Policies over Inline Policies.
- Always setup multi-factor authentication on your root account.
- IAM allows the creation of a password policy. This includes password rotation policies.
- Users have no permissions when first created. Users should be given the minimum amount of permissions.
- IAM allows a customized sign-in link for new users.